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Conflict Resolution Lesson Plans

Protagonist Definition

a character who pursues the primary goals of the plot of a story

Antagonist Definition

a character who stands in opposition to advancing the primary goals of the plot of a story


What is a Protagonist and What is an Antagonist?


The heart of storytelling lies in the dynamic interplay between antagonist vs protagonist, a clash that fuels the narrative's energy, presenting challenges that test the depths of character and resilience. In most kinds of storytelling, there is a central figure whom the story centers around, and often there is someone or inanimate forces who work against them to foil their plans. Both antagonist and protagonist embody intricate motivations that move the story forward, layered complexities, and transformative arcs that infuse vitality into the intricate interplay of conflict and resolution within a narrative. While many students may not realize it, if they can recognize the forces of good and evil in a story, a television show, a movie, a comic, or a video game, then chances are they already understand the fundamental differences between a protagonist and an antagonist in literature. Protagonist and antagonist definitions help establish the narrative framework, shaping the characters' roles and interactions, ultimately guiding the reader through a journey of conflict, growth, and resolution. Popular strong protagonist and main antagonist examples include the iconic rivalry between Sherlock Holmes, the brilliant detective, and his cunning nemesis, Professor Moriarty (the "bad guy"), a battle of wits that has captivated readers for generations. A key defining trait of an antagonist is the ability to challenge the protagonist's path. With that defining trait, the difference between protagonist and antagonist is vividly illustrated; while the protagonist's journey embodies moving the story forward with growth and transformation in the character arc, the antagonist's role lies in catalyzing change through opposition and conflict.

Exploring the Protagonist Personality in Literature

The number of contexts in which one could ask "What does protagonist mean?" are many, including literature, theater, film and television, video games, real-life narratives, educational settings, business narratives, historical accounts, personal development discussions, and social commentary, each highlighting the dynamic role of the central character in various forms of storytelling and human expression. At its core, the protagonist is usually the story's main character or a supporting character, and can be seen as the driving force behind the narrative, shaping the very essence of the story and guiding readers through a captivating journey of trials and triumphs. The protagonist pursues the goals of the plot of a story, which may differentiate them from other main characters, mentors, or sidekicks. A protagonist is often known as the heroic protagonist or the "good guy", and is one of the more memorable characters. However, he or she can also be reluctantly chosen or cynical about the whole ordeal, or even be a false protagonist! Most display common traits, which set them apart from the other characters:

  • Driven by a goal, duty, or curiosity
  • Has a relatable character flaw
  • Loyal to cause, family, and allies
  • Experiences change
  • Brave and courageous
  • Superior intelligence or strength
  • Invokes trust or likeability

Crafting a compelling character in a compelling story goes beyond just their actions; it involves delving into the depths of protagonist personality, creating a multifaceted individual that resonates with readers on a personal level. From the determined and unwavering Katniss Everdeen in 'The Hunger Games' to the morally complex Walter White in 'Breaking Bad,' these protagonist examples showcase the diverse range of characters that captivate audiences with their unique journeys.

Exploring the Antagonist Personality in Literature

The antagonist, also known as the "bad guy" or the villain antagonist, stands in opposition to the protagonist’s goals. An antagonist is often known as the story's anti hero who embodies evil, but an antagonist can also come in the form of a group of people, an institution, a force in nature, or a personal conflict or flaw the protagonist must overcome. The antagonist's meaning within the storyline goes beyond a simple opposition; they are the embodiment of conflict, the shadows that challenge the protagonist. An antagonistic definition is simply not complete without acknowledging its role as the driving force of opposition in a narrative, creating hurdles that test the protagonist's resolve and catalyze their growth. The best way to understand the antagonist is to ask who is standing in the way of the story’s goal? The antagonist often shares some of the most notable traits as the protagonist, although for different reasons. The antagonist's meaning in a story extends far beyond being a mere adversary. Common traits of many traditional antagonists include:

  • Driven by a goal or duty, or a desire to avoid something
  • Has a relatable character flaw
  • Loyal to cause, family, and allies
  • Adapts easily to obstacles and change
  • Has a secret or important information
  • Superior intelligence or strength
  • Invokes feelings of unease or distrust

Note: Sometimes the protagonist is evil and the antagonist is good, like in Shakespeare’s play The Tragedy of Richard III. The key is always to ask who is advancing the plot’s goals, and who is standing in the way? In Richard III, Richard’s goal is to take and hold the throne; however, he is defeated in battle by Henry, the Earl of Richmond, who becomes King Henry VII and begins the Tudor dynasty in England. Shakespeare's play 'Macbeth' provides a classic antagonist vs protagonist example, where the power-hungry Macbeth faces off against the valiant Macduff, showcasing the intense clash between ambition and righteousness.


Tips for Crafting Antagonist and Protagonist Characters

  • When crafting a compelling narrative, it's important to assess villain vs antagonist distinctions; while a villain's malevolent intent often drives their actions, an antagonist's opposition can stem from a variety of motivations, blurring the lines between good and evil.

  • An antagonistic personality should inject a dose of tension into the narrative, as characters with conflicting viewpoints and motives clash, igniting sparks that fuel the plot's progression.

  • A protagonist vs main character example would be evident in the novel 'Gone Girl,' where Amy Dunne takes on the role of both protagonist and antagonist, leading readers through a psychological labyrinth of shifting perspectives. Who is a protagonist in a narrative? They are the central figure around whom the story revolves, facing trials and triumphs that captivate the audience and drive the plot forward.

  • What makes a good protagonist is a blend of relatable flaws, compelling goals, and an innate ability to evolve in response to challenges, resonating with readers as they embark on a transformative journey.

  • Antagonist character traits play a crucial role in shaping the narrative's conflict, as their motivations, complexities, and actions intertwine to create a rich tapestry of challenges that the protagonist must overcome.

  • Understanding how to write a protagonist involves crafting a multidimensional character, giving them relatable traits, flaws, and aspirations that resonate with readers and drive the story's emotional core.

  • Selecting protagonist traits to highlight is an art, as authors carefully choose qualities that not only define the character but also set the stage for personal growth, driving the narrative's evolution.

  • The characteristics of antagonist personalities bring a diverse range of motivations, from envy and ambition to righteous conviction, infusing the narrative with tension and presenting a counterpoint to the protagonist's journey.

  • While the central character embodies the protagonist mindset, another character can demonstrate a different perspective, serving as a foil and highlighting the growth and transformation the protagonist undergoes.

  • Exploring the characteristics of protagonists is a journey into empathy, as readers connect with their relatable qualities, witness their struggles, and cheer for their growth through the challenges that shape their story.

  • The qualities of a protagonist do not have to be flawless; in fact, it's their relatable imperfections and vulnerabilities that often make their journey all the more captivating and inspiring to readers.

  • From antagonist to protagonist, a character's transformative arc can offer a captivating exploration of redemption, growth, and the intricate shades of morality that breathe life into the narrative.

  • Various types of protagonists in literature unveil a rich tapestry, ranging from the classic hero on an epic quest to the modern antihero navigating morally gray landscapes, each contributing a unique flavor to the art of storytelling.

Example Protagonist vs Antagonist Activity

Although this activity can be used for multiple grade levels, below are Common Core State Standards for Grades 9-10. Please see your Common Core State Standards for the correct grade-appropriate strands.

  • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text

  • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme

  • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.6: Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature

Students may find it helpful to keep track of the important characteristics of the protagonists and antagonists that they identify as they read. Use the example below to have students depict and provide analysis of these characteristics as they read. The following example utilizes Arthur and Mordred from The Once and Future King:


Protagonist vs. Antagonist Templates

Storyboard That provides premade templates for you to assign to your students. All templates are customizable, making differentiation simple!



Rubric: Characteristics of Protagonist and Antagonist

Protagonist and Antagonist Character Analysis
As we read and discuss, identify, depict, and analyze the seven common characteristics of a protagonist and the seven common characteristics of an antagonist that appear throughout the story. Create a scene for each element that highlights how it is utilized throughout the work. Add a brief quote or description under each scene that highlights an important piece of the element being depicted. Make sure the art in your scenes is historically and factually accurate to the story. Your scenes need to be neat, eye-catching, and reflect creativity and care. Please proofread your writing and organize your ideas thoughtfully.
Proficient
25 Points
Emerging
19 Points
Beginning
13 Points
Protagonist Characteristics
The seven common character traits of a protagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story. The explanation provided explains how the scenes depict each characteristic, and shows effective analysis.
5-6 common character traits of a protagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story, or some of the elements may not be identified correctly. The explanations give context to the scene, but may be minimal, and there is some attempt at analysis.
2-4 common character traits of a protagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story, or most of the elements are inaccurately depicted. The quotes and/or explanations are too minimal, or missing altogether.
Antagonist Characteristics
The seven common character traits of an antagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story. The explanation provided explains how the scenes depict each characteristic, and shows effective analysis.
5-6 common character traits of an antagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story, or some of the elements may not be identified correctly. The explanations give context to the scene, but may be minimal, and there is some attempt at analysis.
2-4 common character traits of an antagonist are correctly identified and portrayed from the story, or most of the elements are inaccurately depicted. The quotes and/or explanations are too minimal, or missing altogether.
Artistic Depictions
The art chosen to depict the scenes are accurate to the work of literature. Time and care is taken to ensure that the scenes are neat, eye-catching, and creative.
The art chosen to depict the scenes should be accurate, but there may be some liberties taken that distract from the assignment. Scene constructions are neat, and meet basic expectations.
The art chosen to depict the scenes is inappropriate. Scene constructions are messy and may create some confusion, or may be too limited.
English Conventions
Ideas are organized. There are few or no grammatical, mechanical, or spelling errors.
Ideas are mostly organized. There are some grammatical, mechanical, or spelling errors.
Ideas may be disorganized or misplaced. Lack of control over grammar, mechanics, and spelling reflect a lack of proofreading.

How to Analyze Protagonists and Antagonists in Literature

1

Identify the Protagonist and Antagonist

Read the literary work and determine the main character or characters who drive the plot and pursue the goals of the story. Identify the protagonist, who represents the forces of good or the central character, and the antagonist, who opposes the protagonist's goals.

2

Examine Character Traits

Analyze the characteristics and traits of the protagonist and antagonist. Look for traits that differentiate them from other characters in the story. Consider their motivations, goals, flaws, loyalties, and how they respond to challenges and changes throughout the narrative

3

Compare and Contrast

Compare the traits of the protagonist and antagonist to identify similarities and differences. Look for shared traits such as relatable character flaws, loyalty to a cause or allies, and intelligence or strength. Also, note their contrasting traits, which may include opposing goals or perspectives.

4

Analyze Character Development

Evaluate how the protagonist and antagonist evolve and develop over the course of the story. Analyze their interactions with other characters, how they respond to conflicts, and how their motivations or perspectives change over time. Consider how their development contributes to advancing the plot or developing the story's theme.

5

Provide Textual Evidence

Support your analysis with strong and thorough textual evidence. Cite specific passages or dialogue from the literary work that showcase the protagonist's and antagonist's traits, actions, and interactions. Use these textual references to support your interpretations and inferences about the characters.

6

Reflect on the Significance

Reflect on the significance of the protagonist and antagonist in the story. Consider the impact they have on the plot, the themes explored, and the overall message of the work. Discuss how their dynamic relationship shapes the narrative and engages readers


Related Antagonist and Protagonist Activities




Frequently Asked Questions about Protagonist vs Antagonist

What is a protagonist?

A protagonist is the central figure in a story who pursues the goals of the plot. They are often referred to as the hero of the story and display traits such as being driven by a goal or curiosity, having a relatable character flaw, being loyal to cause, family, and allies, experiencing change, being brave and courageous, and invoking trust or likability.

What is an antagonist?

An antagonist is the character or force that stands in opposition to the protagonist’s goals. They are often referred to as the villain of the story and can come in the form of a group of people, an institution, a force in nature, or a personal conflict or flaw the protagonist must overcome. Common traits of antagonists include being driven by a goal or duty, having a relatable character flaw, being loyal to cause, family, and allies, adapting easily to obstacles and change, having secret or important information, and invoking feelings of unease or distrust.

What is the main goal of a story's antagonist?

It's often to thwart the protagonist's progress, to challenge their beliefs, and to create a compelling conflict that propels the narrative to its resolution. Antagonist characters inject a dynamic dose of conflict and complexity into the narrative, driving the protagonist to confront their fears, evolve, and ultimately shape the story's trajectory. What is an antagonist character's most defining trait? It's the ability to cast a shadow of challenge and complexity over the protagonist's path, adding layers of depth to the narrative and driving its compelling dynamics.

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