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What is a Tragic Hero?

It fascinates us to watch people fail. Perhaps this is what makes a tragic hero so captivating and relatable. Tragic heroes can be seen in television, film, and literature. It is critical to define this archetype and to understand how they affect a plot. By using storyboards, students create a fun and interactive way to internalize the concept, and build a framework to spot the tragic heroes throughout literature.

Tragic Hero Definition:

A tragic hero is a person, usually of noble birth, with heroic or potentially heroic qualities. This person is doomed by fate, some supernatural force to be destroyed, or endure great suffering. The hero struggles admirably against this fate, but fails because of a flaw or mistake.

Aristotle's Characteristics of a Tragic Hero


The flaw that causes the hero's downfall


Excessive pride, or disrespect for the natural order


A reversal of fortune


The moment when the hero makes a critical discovery


A fate that cannot be avoided, usually as retribution for hubris


The feeling of pity or fear the audience experiences after the hero's fall

Students can have difficulty with these concepts, especially the subtleties of strange words like catharsis, peripeteia, and anagnorisis. Here's a storyboard to help explain what Aristotle meant by catharsis:

Related Activities

Check out these tragic activities from our guides on Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, The Tragedy of Macbeth, and The Tragedy of Julius Caesar.

Our Recommended Lesson Plan

Overview of the Lesson

What is a tragic hero and how do I know who they are? This lesson will teach students about this literary archetype and ask them to think deeply about character’s attributes and how they affect the work as a whole.

To this day, literature is inundated with tragic heroes, but it was the great philosopher, Aristotle, who first outlined the qualities of a tragic hero. He suggested that a hero of a tragedy must evoke a sense of pity or fear in the audience. To do this, the hero’s misfortune must be undeserved in some way. It cannot result from vice or depravity.

To learn more about other hero types, take a look at our article on "Types of Heroes".

Teachers Note: I find my students engage with the concept of a tragic hero through popular television shows and media. I always reinforce their knowledge by listing some they are already familiar with, such as Dr. Gregory House or Walter White. In this lesson, I ask students to track traits in the literature they are reading. Later, they reconstruct the features of a tragic hero by creating a storyboard to show their mastery of the concept.

Time: Introduction, 45 Minutes

Grade Level: 8-12


This lesson can be used for many grade levels. Below are examples of the Common Core State Standards for Grades 9-10. See your Common Core State Standards for the correct grade appropriate strands.

  • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text
  • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme
  • ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task
  • ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.5: Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest

Lesson Specific Essential Questions

  1. How do we know what a character's tragic flaw is?
  2. Can you distinguish a flawed character from a character who has misfortune?
  3. Who is the hero and who is the villain in this work of literature?
  4. Optional: How is a tragic hero different from an antihero?


Students will be able to define tragic hero, list examples from works of literature, film and television, and retain the effects a tragic hero has on plot.

What students should know and be able to do before starting this lesson: Students should be able to list heroes and villains from popular works of literature, movies, and/or television.

Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

Some students will have prior knowledge, and may even know the definition of a tragic hero. They might also have misconceptions about tragic heroes and confuse them with antiheroes. This can be clarified after the activator, during the teacher review stage.

Instructional Materials/Resources/Tools

  • Before: Tragic Hero Activator Worksheet
  • During: Aristotle's Characteristics of Tragic Hero Template
  • Example/After: Macbeth the Tragic Hero
  • Access to Storyboard That

Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions for Teacher

Be specific when asking students to create a storyboard that shows Aristotle’s features of a tragic hero. Make sure students include an explanation of each attribute and a quote that supports their claim. If they are doing this as a project, having the students download their storyboards to a PowerPoint is a perfect way for them to explain each cell.

Tragic Hero Lesson Details/Procedure

Lesson Opening

Activator: Students will be given the Tragic Hero Activator Worksheet and instructed to fill in the boxes to the best of their ability. If students cannot fill in Box Three (List Tragic Heroes), instruct them that they may leave it blank. After five minutes, ask students to compare lists with someone sitting near them. Then ask each pair to say one hero or villain out loud and make a list on the board. Once that is complete, ask them why they know the list on the board is a hero or villain? As a class, come up with definitions for each, and a list of attributes they possess.

During the Lesson

Teaching the Term: Ask all students if anyone has prior knowledge and knows what a tragic hero is, or if anyone has a guess for this type of character. If they do, write down on the board what they give for an answer. If no one knows, begin to front-load the term. After giving students, the definition, ask them to think of characters from cinema, television, and literature that they think would fall in this category, and make a list. Repeat with a think, pair, and share of a list of characters and attributes.

Lesson Closing

Defining the Term: After students have come up with the list of attributes they believe a tragic hero possesses, go over Aristotle’s characteristics. Ask students to fill out and track the attributes which make the protagonist of your work a tragic hero by writing in the answers on Aristotle's Characteristics of Tragic Hero Template.

Lesson Extension

After students have finished reading the novel or play, reinforce this lesson by asking them to complete their own storyboard, showing each attribute using a scene and quote from the text. This lesson extension coupled with a slide show presentation will help students master the concept of tragic hero.

Add a Presentation

Have students attach their storyboard to a paper which requires students to give an in-depth explanation of the deeper meaning of their element throughout the novel. Or couple this assignment with a presentation, see our article on how to present a storyboard.

How to Explore the Role of Fate in Tragic Heroes


Introduce the Concept of Fate

Begin by explaining the concept of fate to students. Define fate as a force or power that predetermines events and outcomes in a person's life. Discuss how the belief in fate is prevalent in various cultures and its significance in tragic storytelling.

Identify Tragic Heroes and Their Choices

Select a tragic hero from a literary work and analyze their choices and actions throughout the story. Help students understand that fate often interacts with a character's decisions and behaviors, leading to their tragic outcome. Encourage students to identify key moments where the tragic hero's choices align or conflict with their fate.

Examine Foreshadowing and Omens

Explore instances of foreshadowing and omens within the text. Discuss how these literary devices are used to hint at the presence of fate and its impact on the tragic hero. Guide students in identifying specific examples and interpreting their significance.

Analyze the Relationship Between Fate and Tragic Flaw

Help students understand the connection between fate and the tragic hero's flaw. Discuss how the flaw often sets the tragic hero on a path that aligns with their predetermined fate. Guide students in analyzing how the tragic flaw and the influence of fate interact and contribute to the character's downfall.

Consider Alternative Outcomes

Encourage students to explore alternative outcomes for the tragic hero. Discuss how different choices or actions by the character could have potentially altered their fate. Prompt students to imagine scenarios where the tragic hero could have avoided their tragic end or achieved a different outcome.

Reflects on the Significance of Fate

Conclude the exploration by reflecting on the significance of fate in tragic hero narratives. Discuss how the belief in fate raises philosophical questions about free will, determinism, and the role of external forces in shaping one's life. Encourage students to express their own perspectives on the impact and implications of fate in tragic storytelling.

Frequently Asked Questions about The Tragic Hero

What is a tragic hero?

A tragic hero refers to a character typically of noble birth, possessing heroic traits but destined for failure, destruction, or immense suffering due to a flaw or mistake.

What are some examples of tragic heroes in literature and media?

Some famous examples of tragic heroes include Oedipus from the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, Macbeth from Shakespeare's play Macbeth, and Anakin Skywalker from the Star Wars franchise.

Why is understanding the concept of a tragic hero important?

Understanding the concept of a tragic hero is essential in analyzing and interpreting works of literature and media. It helps readers and viewers identify and appreciate the complexity of the characters and their motivations, and provides insight into the author's message and themes.

Find more activities like this in our 6-12 ELA Category!
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